Youtube 翻譯 第二章
Take a moment and look at everything on your desk, your pockets or on your skin, most of what you used to watch this video, what you wear to stay warm, and what you might eat drink or smoke as you watch this is imported. This is so normal to us that it never really stands out to us (Made In China).
花少少時間, 看看你桌上的一切, 你口袋或在你身上的. 大部份你用來觀看這部影片, 你用來保暖的衣物, 和你的飲食或香煙都是進口的. (中國製造) 這些都是如此普遍, 它從來都不太出眾.
Drinking Spanish wine with Brazilian grapes to complement the taste of Italian cheese, with a rare shirt made in Turkey with cotton produced in India. You might then share this video with an app produced by an American on a phone assembled in China of plastic parts made of Saudi oil in a German chemical plant powered by batteries made of lithium in Chile and functioning due to various microchips made of aluminium mined from Australia, cobalt from the Congo, Russian nickel and Chilean copper. Our modern consumer existence is however only a recent reality and we can put an exact date on when it came to be - April 26th, 1956.
從喝著西班牙的酒, 伴巴西的葡萄到讚美意大利的芝士, 穿着一件稀有的土耳其短袖汗衫, 當中選用了印度的棉花. 你然後可能會透過一個由美國人設計的應用程式分享這段影片, 當中使用的手機是利用沙特的石油,德國的化工廠和中國組裝的塑膠零件; 使用智利開採的鋰的電池; 和從澳洲開採的鋁, 剛果的鈷, 俄羅斯的鎳和智利的銅生產的微芯片. 我們現代的消費模式然而只是最近才形成的, 而我們可以切實的知道是何時開始 - 1956年4月26日.
If you remember from the previous chapter, for centuries, trade was a weapon. Empires who competed for trade routes strictly criminalized trade between empires, attempting to gain monopolies and exploit the market needs of others. Foreign-made products were rare with existent at all, only came from colonies. That's until a certain Scotsman observed the group of smugglers illegally entering England with products made in France. He started asking himself why they did that, why they risk their lives and punishment to import foreign goods and then had a realization, sat down and wrote a series of books (The Wealth of Nations), which many today mistakenly believed to be just one book.
如果你記得上一章, 貿易在數百年來被視為一種武器, 爭奪貿易路線的帝國會將與他國貿易視為犯法, 並嘗試壟斷並剝削其他人的市場需求. 外國製造的商品是十分罕見或完全不存在的, 通常是殖民地的. 直到一名蘇格蘭人注意到一班走私販非法帶着法國的商品來到英國. 他於是思考原因, 為何他們冒着生命危險和懲罰來進口外地物品. 然後他恍然大悟, 坐下並寫下至今不少人以為是一本但其實是一系列的書籍 (國富論).
In book four, “of systems of political economy”, he criticized the existent mercantile economic system that banned foreign imports trade with foreign powers and in foreign markets increases the wealth of domestic craftsmen and merchants increases productivity through the import of resources used in the domestic industry. Merchants and businessmen are never content with domestic markets but will continuously seek to expand both their markets and wealth. The market should, therefore, be set free from the restraints of geopolitical concern and the wealth the manufacturers and merchants acquire will increase the wealth of the nation. His works were well received but Britain clung on to a closed colonial preferential trading system. The Dutch embrace his ideas, but nowhere where his ideas as widely accepted studied and implemented as in the new world.
在第四本書,「政治經濟體系」,他批評當時禁止國與國貿易的商業經濟體系並容許國內工匠在國外市場增加財富與商人因在國內市場使用進口資源而增加勞動力. 商人與工匠永遠都不會滿足於國內市場而會不斷尋求拓展自己的市場和財產. 因此, 市場理應放鬆對地緣政治的管轄因而生產商與商人的財富會帶動國家的收入. 他的作品十分受歡迎但英國仍然保持他的封閉殖民優先貿易系統。荷蘭人採納了他的建議，然而沒有誰能比新世界更接納，閱讀而實行他的見解。
The American nation that was violently birthed from a British tax dispute grew in productivity for its ever increasing labour pool gradually over the course of a century, changing the economic balance of the world and increasing its own dominance; and the core tenant of that ever-increasing economic power was an urge to sell what that ever-increasing labour pool produced to as many as possible. The Americans did so by breaking down trade barriers by force, negotiation or forceful negotiation. Central America, South America, Japan, Caribbean, Philippines, China.
While other empires went toward to take other people's stuff, the Americans went to war to sell their stuff and their biggest triumph came when European imperial ambitions flared up so high, they burnt themselves to the ground.
A condition for American entry into that Hall was a disbandment of all preferential trading systems. 1945 was the year of a global American triumph that would allow it to use its massive labour pool to sell its products to markets far and wide. There was, however, a problem. The structures of limited economic systems had engrained themselves within the logistics of whatever global trade had existed. Until then shipping was a tedious process in which everything from ready-made machines grain cars and coal was tightly packed into the hull of a ship.
Entire Harbor industries and networks developed around this process and the loading of a ship could take up to a week.
Until the 26th of April, 1956, when the ideal X set sail across the Atlantic this doesn't look very special, it's an old converted World War II Liberty Ship. What made it special was its cargo, containers. the previous year the American businessman Malcolm McLean frustrated with the immense difficulties of loading and unloading goods on ships trucks and trains came up with the idea of a standard measure metal box, specific for trade unified international dimensions and easy to transport.
The Americans would not adopt the metric system, but they certainly knew how to use it. This invention of the 26th of April 1956 a dates that will go down in human history of similar significance as the invention of the printing press - completely revolutionized global trade. Suddenly, everything could be transported quickly, efficiently, at low cost across the entire world. America's goods fueled consumer economies around the world, American industry could cheaply and compactly import anything from bananas to metals needed an industry. An integrant network of interdependent markets developed that created our modern world.
But the Americans also quickly learn something else, Germans make damn good cars, so do the Japanese and the Koreans; Mexican label is cheaper than Michigan labour; Swiss banks were better at hiding financial misdeeds than Wall Street firms; French medical devices are excellent; the German chemical industry, efficient; Chilean miners produce more copper at less of a cost. The global free market the Americans championed meant that in this global economy, the winners were determined by innovation and labour costs. And for the most part, despite all difficulties, It still worked out for them… for a time. Because across the ocean the Chinese were internationally isolated and busy trying to achieve communism through a famine (Comrades, starve yourselves)