粤文證考 - 動詞篇【一】「給」與「畀」 | Penana
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動詞篇【一】「給」與「畀」
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No Plagiarism!JE5YWyvkMxUtYowJU5Trposted on PENANA

動詞篇【一】「給」與「畀」84Please respect copyright.PENANAKDUbtNpENO
84Please respect copyright.PENANAORs6gvB6PN
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在重視人鄰關係的中國文化底蘊中,我們在日常生活經常有「給予」物件的行為以示友好。所以「給」這個字已經化成不同的詞性,在我們的日常口語當中經常使用,就例如:copyright protection80PENANA9ccea9NGtA

「我給你一些東西。」(動詞)copyright protection80PENANAdo3bMzUHFO

「告訢給你。」(介詞)copyright protection80PENANA9pfGVkuWGX

「補給。」(名詞)84Please respect copyright.PENANAer188PDevI
84Please respect copyright.PENANAPfmJqPxQtl
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但你現在知道「給」這個字的本意並不完全是「給予」的意思。84Please respect copyright.PENANAEic6psC0zr
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84Please respect copyright.PENANAOOSPX1FAfb
字義84Please respect copyright.PENANAj4qFORvlHY
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考究《說文解字.糸部》:「給,相足也。」copyright protection80PENANAwyfGhj18c1

所謂「相足」,即是互補不足之意。copyright protection80PENANAuEgeaFLg00

你不足夠的,我補充給你。就《管子》的一句話是這樣的:copyright protection80PENANA29ocxsjg1m

「人君不理,則畜賈游於市,乘民之不給,百倍其本矣。」copyright protection80PENANAFxVUdceelq

大意就說,如果政府不管理商家,隨便他們炒賣,那麼他們就會「乘機趁著人民不能互相補充(買賣)的情況(就說是戰爭天災的情況)」,商家的屯貨就會身價百倍。copyright protection80PENANAgP5w4gcPxd

而基於以上的用法,才在後代慢慢生出「給予」之意。84Please respect copyright.PENANAwuJpkGq0hG
84Please respect copyright.PENANAbALCfzuKVc
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84Please respect copyright.PENANAJBy1u2HQ7o
但是,古代也有「給予,給你東西」的情況吧,那麼他們是用什麼字來表達這個情況?copyright protection80PENANAtPfoKtBYIW

就是遺留在粵語中的「畀」字。84Please respect copyright.PENANALETv3ecuft
84Please respect copyright.PENANAar3W3jvy4r
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考究《說文解字.丌部》:「相付與之。」copyright protection80PENANAVvTiKGcrMl

        《爾雅》:「畀,賜也。」copyright protection80PENANA9fbpEVTfUB

  《玉篇》:「畀,相付也,與也。」copyright protection80PENANAbjBXP7NBPs

相信大家也看得懂,從古代開始「畀」就有著「給予」本意。其字本意解,我就不多詳細,想問的人可以自己看看《說文注字注》。我就談談「畀」和「給」的用法之別。84Please respect copyright.PENANAKO2jPxlxns
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文法84Please respect copyright.PENANAkPJoLNIhlM
84Please respect copyright.PENANAI5BLoqiKXG
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儘管兩字意同,在基於兩字的文字發展過程有異,其文法上的運用以及意思範圍上有所分別。84Please respect copyright.PENANAcTQjIvtLm8
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文法:copyright protection80PENANAOhyN6CvASF

「給」與「畀」在單獨以動詞使用,以至以連動介詞使用時,文法不變:copyright protection80PENANARuZohIz0kZ

「我給你。」 = 「我畀你。」copyright protection80PENANACyAzn9kkvH

「我講給你聽。」 = 「我講畀你聽。」84Please respect copyright.PENANABJ2curCNbA
84Please respect copyright.PENANAtotjHbObXb
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但在雙賓語的語境下就會使句子語序出現不同的情況。copyright protection80PENANAjyDiXU0xUl

「我給你一本書。」copyright protection80PENANAwxT76hhrBM

「我畀一本書你。」84Please respect copyright.PENANAk2SiQY1sM2
84Please respect copyright.PENANApnMrzgTc45
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除此之外,粵文的「畀」比起白話文的「給」有更多的語義範圍:copyright protection80PENANALbuousjvZd

「讓」義:「畀他入嚟」 = 「讓他進來」copyright protection80PENANAQwLKER1VjC

受身義(被):「畀人煩咗成日」 = 「被人煩了整天」84Please respect copyright.PENANAMxugRbsGnp
84Please respect copyright.PENANARHsJZiI1Ku
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另外,還可以當連詞來使用。copyright protection80PENANAM48htCKM7K

「如果」義:copyright protection80PENANA0YgLIUDJPW

「畀着喺你,你會點做?」 = 「如果是你,你會怎做?」84Please respect copyright.PENANA49RQBr7vDb
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字理84Please respect copyright.PENANABpJ5GAh8hE
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而為什麼粵文的「畀」用法這樣的多?copyright protection80PENANAq0fHMXBpHr

這跟文言文的使用習性有關,文言文著重言簡意該,而每個字都沒有意思上的絕對限制,可以有十分多的意思,雖然這是令文言文難讀的原因,但也就促成語意精美的獨特語境。copyright protection80PENANAm30LKnM7PD

同樣,粵文大多的字義、文字是直承文言系統,粵文的文字沒有白語文般的嚴謹語法和字義,也就造就出一詞多用、多詞性的情況出現,例如:copyright protection80PENANAMdixKeKTUK

仆街一詞copyright protection80PENANAalKp2wnEW5

「仆街!」語氣助詞copyright protection80PENANA6i864TuR0j

「你個仆街!」名詞copyright protection80PENANAuNxNki14cW

「仆街啦你。」動詞copyright protection80PENANAPmizMl6aZ3

「你會唔會仆街咗啲」形容詞copyright protection80PENANAf6modqhHhh

「仆你個街。」動詞+名詞84Please respect copyright.PENANA4rdWiPnqk0
84Please respect copyright.PENANACWql16Wjed
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粵文就是這樣的好玩,沒有規範,自由組合,說得明就好了。84Please respect copyright.PENANAXNmjNeF6P3
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84Please respect copyright.PENANAfQtGcuN9N2
​附錄《【畀】【俾】【比】有乜分別》:copyright protection80PENANA3Ehp2uQkc7

84Please respect copyright.PENANAnLPJ5CYLIO
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畀,俾,比,三字的讀音皆為〔bei2〕/〔 pei²²〕。84Please respect copyright.PENANAY4crLpWyzK
84Please respect copyright.PENANAAWvpGB2FmL
【畀】:廣州音〔bei2〕84Please respect copyright.PENANAtbDcuTMBkB
〔1〕給,付。84Please respect copyright.PENANAXjGaKrzHZ8
   例:畀本書我。〔給我一本書。〕 84Please respect copyright.PENANArA5W0Ly3qU
     你話畀佢知。〔你告訴他/她。〕84Please respect copyright.PENANAOT5r6AkScF
〔2〕介詞。被;受;讓;用。84Please respect copyright.PENANAu9YakJCTqC
   例:畀人睇見。〔被人看見。〕 84Please respect copyright.PENANA2Sd7PdTngj
     畀嗰個人煩咗成日。〔受那個人干擾了整天。〕 84Please respect copyright.PENANAi4dowjYRca
     畀佢入嚟。〔讓他/她進來。〕 84Please respect copyright.PENANAwGkvREfuyG
     畀墨水筆寫。〔用鋼筆寫。〕84Please respect copyright.PENANA6ByjJnxCKO
〔3〕連詞,常與〔着〕連用,表示假設。84Please respect copyright.PENANAV3S8rpsqgE
   例:畀着你係主角,你會點做?84Please respect copyright.PENANAANlVidAxH8
     〔假設你是主角,你會怎做?〕84Please respect copyright.PENANAdOKM7t9F5U
84Please respect copyright.PENANAt0Ym9pLCP2
【俾】:廣州音〔bei2〕84Please respect copyright.PENANAgqPCm8PWGx
〔1〕使。84Please respect copyright.PENANA5UlPGtiQ8n
   例:俾便考查。 84Please respect copyright.PENANAKCoIYy8JaY
     唔好俾度門關埋。〔使門不能關上。〕84Please respect copyright.PENANAMroB4KKUHq
84Please respect copyright.PENANArMkMB1gURp
【比】:廣州音〔bei2比〕84Please respect copyright.PENANAiC1HlZftJq
〔1〕比嘅字義較廣,一般用喺較量或者譬喻嘅意思。84Please respect copyright.PENANAsvSQ7XBRRi
84Please respect copyright.PENANAii4C5GDlAv
畀,俾,比,三字基本上各有所指,不易混淆。84Please respect copyright.PENANALS7MAtMQXw
但由於香港的報刊與雜誌,經常將「畀」的意義的字寫成「俾」字,所以才有這混亂出現。84Please respect copyright.PENANAhp29ga6R1X
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「俾」.意義是:「使」。84Please respect copyright.PENANA6soefYH2OE
   《廣韻》、《爾雅》:等均言「俾,使也」。84Please respect copyright.PENANAz54BfkLmbN
84Please respect copyright.PENANAkl7AA4WvFE
「畀」.意思是:「給」、「付與」。84Please respect copyright.PENANA0L7pZnoGpc
   《爾雅》:「畀,賜也。」84Please respect copyright.PENANAlYipAxJmUV
   《玉篇》:「畀,相付也,與也。」84Please respect copyright.PENANAaehiPRmMm1
   《說文》:「畀,相付與之。」84Please respect copyright.PENANAqnNxNMUbtk
84Please respect copyright.PENANAnOjGeUeYg8
所以嚴格來說,我們日常用的「bei2」字,正寫應為「畀」。84Please respect copyright.PENANAUrnbJc26Yp
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但為何我們會以「俾」代「畀」呢?84Please respect copyright.PENANAb90vPfp3dG
「俾」讀音為〔bei2〕,與粵語中的〔比、彼〕同音。84Please respect copyright.PENANAb77yjRLmYK
「畀」讀音同為〔bei2〕,又讀音為〔bei3〕,與粵語中的〔庇、秘、臂」等同音。84Please respect copyright.PENANAL69z259KXV
84Please respect copyright.PENANAW94XETc3Xp
由此可見,我們常用的「bei2」字,與「俾」同音,但卻與「畀」同義。由於「俾」、「畀」音近,而「俾」在現今書面語仍保留著,故常以「俾」代「畀」。 84Please respect copyright.PENANAK9xRHQJtdH
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文:井底蛙.2007年12月13日84Please respect copyright.PENANADxzIudBGhz
〔香港語文.廣東話資料館〕copyright protection80PENANABeUGNu6F5A

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留言 ( 12 )

Pig Done - 哇嗚…長知識了!!
8 個月前回覆

梧桐雨 - 看完之後...我只記得仆街....
(學語言都從罵人的話開始...
8 個月前回覆

筆言 - 考試 仆街了嗎?
8 個月前回覆

梧桐雨 - @筆言,沒飯吃了
8 個月前回覆

筆言 - @梧桐雨, 嗯,你這次仆街了
8 個月前回覆

霓詩 - SO~兩者的距離,只差一公分~~
9 個月前回覆

筆言 - 其實有點遠
9 個月前回覆

霓詩 - @筆言,呵呵,不過意思還是易懂得
9 個月前回覆

車川ひろし - 好難耶~
9 個月前回覆

檸檬綠 - 「畀」做「給予」時跟「give」用法好像啊XDD
9 個月前回覆

筆言 -



「給」本身更像英文中的give ,連語序也一樣

I give you a book.

我給你一本書



我畀一本書你   就是

I give a book you.


還是有點不一樣。
9 個月前回覆

檸檬綠 - @筆言,OWO/
9 個月前回覆

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