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#1
動詞篇【一】「給」與「畀」
筆言
No Plagiarism!gKHJHHiLnScS0Bry6OYhposted on PENANA

動詞篇【一】「給」與「畀」51Please respect copyright.PENANA5oOk7BHqec
51Please respect copyright.PENANAc33N4FATCE
copyright protection47PENANAse4aWbknGB

在重視人鄰關係的中國文化底蘊中,我們在日常生活經常有「給予」物件的行為以示友好。所以「給」這個字已經化成不同的詞性,在我們的日常口語當中經常使用,就例如:copyright protection47PENANA5WlNG3uZPS

「我給你一些東西。」(動詞)copyright protection47PENANAR2KSEbqKZp

「告訢給你。」(介詞)copyright protection47PENANA1sD5CAhWXY

「補給。」(名詞)51Please respect copyright.PENANAfXxfFp43GN
51Please respect copyright.PENANAEMbt7j4OJj
copyright protection47PENANAy2VUPBYkBN

但你現在知道「給」這個字的本意並不完全是「給予」的意思。51Please respect copyright.PENANA0Wn4JsJkll
copyright protection47PENANAcsQWlu7Mf7


51Please respect copyright.PENANAYAjwPYVU2C
字義51Please respect copyright.PENANAIHpTaxdfmX
51Please respect copyright.PENANAynTWrDoaXJ
copyright protection47PENANAbhzPncpF9m

考究《說文解字.糸部》:「給,相足也。」copyright protection47PENANADHpyCfaAzL

所謂「相足」,即是互補不足之意。copyright protection47PENANAoLeeIzJQlZ

你不足夠的,我補充給你。就《管子》的一句話是這樣的:copyright protection47PENANAYxgymDKMiT

「人君不理,則畜賈游於市,乘民之不給,百倍其本矣。」copyright protection47PENANA9WByudOEOn

大意就說,如果政府不管理商家,隨便他們炒賣,那麼他們就會「乘機趁著人民不能互相補充(買賣)的情況(就說是戰爭天災的情況)」,商家的屯貨就會身價百倍。copyright protection47PENANApc9ErRdbIz

而基於以上的用法,才在後代慢慢生出「給予」之意。51Please respect copyright.PENANAwWkPsaOo4Q
51Please respect copyright.PENANA1MxrGHYUXk
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51Please respect copyright.PENANARvHLr8oQjl
但是,古代也有「給予,給你東西」的情況吧,那麼他們是用什麼字來表達這個情況?copyright protection47PENANASpjuYOIMsw

就是遺留在粵語中的「畀」字。51Please respect copyright.PENANAzPhUEK5s89
51Please respect copyright.PENANAiaWQBDyzyv
copyright protection47PENANA9SJjwbbKmT

考究《說文解字.丌部》:「相付與之。」copyright protection47PENANAkwzrXNV2Mb

        《爾雅》:「畀,賜也。」copyright protection47PENANAqEBK8zyQl1

  《玉篇》:「畀,相付也,與也。」copyright protection47PENANAnvT7Oqi0aE

相信大家也看得懂,從古代開始「畀」就有著「給予」本意。其字本意解,我就不多詳細,想問的人可以自己看看《說文注字注》。我就談談「畀」和「給」的用法之別。51Please respect copyright.PENANATp1BbsJzj2
51Please respect copyright.PENANAVTSdNwXSZ6
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文法51Please respect copyright.PENANA2igZ8RDGqb
51Please respect copyright.PENANAckBdVMGFmZ
copyright protection47PENANA4DIFnQeVHA

儘管兩字意同,在基於兩字的文字發展過程有異,其文法上的運用以及意思範圍上有所分別。51Please respect copyright.PENANAIhSAuG7sz6
51Please respect copyright.PENANAyBoOBxFee6
copyright protection47PENANAW55QcUguVr

文法:copyright protection47PENANA9OWlhSvyKI

「給」與「畀」在單獨以動詞使用,以至以連動介詞使用時,文法不變:copyright protection47PENANACOlkuIbIET

「我給你。」 = 「我畀你。」copyright protection47PENANAjAYprbkHGf

「我講給你聽。」 = 「我講畀你聽。」51Please respect copyright.PENANAqqr2EnPk2b
51Please respect copyright.PENANAjLtcmXStpr
copyright protection47PENANA8Q44bmXHVI

但在雙賓語的語境下就會使句子語序出現不同的情況。copyright protection47PENANAqxwLR0u2J8

「我給你一本書。」copyright protection47PENANAW2JUsa5MRM

「我畀一本書你。」51Please respect copyright.PENANAAX3ZMExsTL
51Please respect copyright.PENANAykcZmQmbap
copyright protection47PENANA10C65Os3vn

除此之外,粵文的「畀」比起白話文的「給」有更多的語義範圍:copyright protection47PENANALVUiHMjbP2

「讓」義:「畀他入嚟」 = 「讓他進來」copyright protection47PENANAjL52GycLk4

受身義(被):「畀人煩咗成日」 = 「被人煩了整天」51Please respect copyright.PENANAnubQGxOz1d
51Please respect copyright.PENANA0Cb4BYI9qC
copyright protection47PENANAym5asbYUeu

另外,還可以當連詞來使用。copyright protection47PENANAh0qci7YBiN

「如果」義:copyright protection47PENANAECzJFfhS1C

「畀着喺你,你會點做?」 = 「如果是你,你會怎做?」51Please respect copyright.PENANAUYX6YjXlv8
copyright protection47PENANAXzY2JqeHlt

字理51Please respect copyright.PENANALSCWJjuxTw
51Please respect copyright.PENANAKU8WYKUHTk
copyright protection47PENANAbDtCPLJOm2

而為什麼粵文的「畀」用法這樣的多?copyright protection47PENANAC0FbKkq2cr

這跟文言文的使用習性有關,文言文著重言簡意該,而每個字都沒有意思上的絕對限制,可以有十分多的意思,雖然這是令文言文難讀的原因,但也就促成語意精美的獨特語境。copyright protection47PENANAEa0DdJ4rrq

同樣,粵文大多的字義、文字是直承文言系統,粵文的文字沒有白語文般的嚴謹語法和字義,也就造就出一詞多用、多詞性的情況出現,例如:copyright protection47PENANAUD3ofS9ZHw

仆街一詞copyright protection47PENANA1jxGui1Ukd

「仆街!」語氣助詞copyright protection47PENANAlZomDB5H2x

「你個仆街!」名詞copyright protection47PENANA7Xablq4vpL

「仆街啦你。」動詞copyright protection47PENANA1q4y7yQ8tb

「你會唔會仆街咗啲」形容詞copyright protection47PENANAmPbKbOlhwo

「仆你個街。」動詞+名詞51Please respect copyright.PENANAjOjgViASE6
51Please respect copyright.PENANA0qYDmHXRfQ
copyright protection47PENANAOElZPHpTcO

粵文就是這樣的好玩,沒有規範,自由組合,說得明就好了。51Please respect copyright.PENANAnZKwWIhRqa
51Please respect copyright.PENANAcKYw1UOBMt
copyright protection47PENANAFdfJMmiDuM


51Please respect copyright.PENANAHMTGqgon8D
​附錄《【畀】【俾】【比】有乜分別》:copyright protection47PENANAPRB0BMPX4l

51Please respect copyright.PENANAdvDY2AHjr7
51Please respect copyright.PENANAuDRt9SnYu9
畀,俾,比,三字的讀音皆為〔bei2〕/〔 pei²²〕。51Please respect copyright.PENANAscWlSmChKK
51Please respect copyright.PENANAVYgzWi9DBB
【畀】:廣州音〔bei2〕51Please respect copyright.PENANAL5eCzovWnZ
〔1〕給,付。51Please respect copyright.PENANA5Pb2b4pNm9
   例:畀本書我。〔給我一本書。〕 51Please respect copyright.PENANAyh7OR460II
     你話畀佢知。〔你告訴他/她。〕51Please respect copyright.PENANABtOQ6nfCjD
〔2〕介詞。被;受;讓;用。51Please respect copyright.PENANABpsNrESQse
   例:畀人睇見。〔被人看見。〕 51Please respect copyright.PENANA00w7OncVnU
     畀嗰個人煩咗成日。〔受那個人干擾了整天。〕 51Please respect copyright.PENANAEZosQvQ67a
     畀佢入嚟。〔讓他/她進來。〕 51Please respect copyright.PENANAJJzcx1QpSi
     畀墨水筆寫。〔用鋼筆寫。〕51Please respect copyright.PENANADSj908wc3U
〔3〕連詞,常與〔着〕連用,表示假設。51Please respect copyright.PENANA7IUwbL21Ra
   例:畀着你係主角,你會點做?51Please respect copyright.PENANAcBTMNrNEQF
     〔假設你是主角,你會怎做?〕51Please respect copyright.PENANAXuygEypbLt
51Please respect copyright.PENANA5Tb0pmLroD
【俾】:廣州音〔bei2〕51Please respect copyright.PENANACAevm2WaGN
〔1〕使。51Please respect copyright.PENANAPEhoUVWk6I
   例:俾便考查。 51Please respect copyright.PENANANcBYd1lZtJ
     唔好俾度門關埋。〔使門不能關上。〕51Please respect copyright.PENANAC5kRAHUxRB
51Please respect copyright.PENANAlHfC5ay2uE
【比】:廣州音〔bei2比〕51Please respect copyright.PENANAKhRlg4mB3P
〔1〕比嘅字義較廣,一般用喺較量或者譬喻嘅意思。51Please respect copyright.PENANAkGUFyvms3d
51Please respect copyright.PENANA4oUj10tz2X
畀,俾,比,三字基本上各有所指,不易混淆。51Please respect copyright.PENANAeMf57vau6e
但由於香港的報刊與雜誌,經常將「畀」的意義的字寫成「俾」字,所以才有這混亂出現。51Please respect copyright.PENANAkrVe6tKtWN
51Please respect copyright.PENANAG1cBkdCONE
「俾」.意義是:「使」。51Please respect copyright.PENANAM1r17zxi3D
   《廣韻》、《爾雅》:等均言「俾,使也」。51Please respect copyright.PENANAwn5rCcVmFS
51Please respect copyright.PENANAamTnYeAA2n
「畀」.意思是:「給」、「付與」。51Please respect copyright.PENANAeOpFPwemOi
   《爾雅》:「畀,賜也。」51Please respect copyright.PENANA0lF5NiiJFX
   《玉篇》:「畀,相付也,與也。」51Please respect copyright.PENANABQjvdhKORM
   《說文》:「畀,相付與之。」51Please respect copyright.PENANAc6ABMq70NW
51Please respect copyright.PENANAjOhZU4hcNW
所以嚴格來說,我們日常用的「bei2」字,正寫應為「畀」。51Please respect copyright.PENANAapNtV0LFOD
51Please respect copyright.PENANAs0K3CwuJxh
但為何我們會以「俾」代「畀」呢?51Please respect copyright.PENANAGQ6XP027dQ
「俾」讀音為〔bei2〕,與粵語中的〔比、彼〕同音。51Please respect copyright.PENANA4ngRRbRDRG
「畀」讀音同為〔bei2〕,又讀音為〔bei3〕,與粵語中的〔庇、秘、臂」等同音。51Please respect copyright.PENANAhjH1mjxQ34
51Please respect copyright.PENANA8KUfIKgKRt
由此可見,我們常用的「bei2」字,與「俾」同音,但卻與「畀」同義。由於「俾」、「畀」音近,而「俾」在現今書面語仍保留著,故常以「俾」代「畀」。 51Please respect copyright.PENANABVRRMJ2EnU
51Please respect copyright.PENANAlEe3FBndrr
文:井底蛙.2007年12月13日51Please respect copyright.PENANAhAbcPTX6EO
〔香港語文.廣東話資料館〕copyright protection47PENANAlSZHSPohJA

54.83.81.52

ns54.83.81.52da2
留言 ( 12 )

Pig Done - 哇嗚…長知識了!!
2 個月前回覆

梧桐雨 - 看完之後...我只記得仆街....
(學語言都從罵人的話開始...
2 個月前回覆

筆言 - 考試 仆街了嗎?
2 個月前回覆

梧桐雨 - @筆言,沒飯吃了
2 個月前回覆

筆言 - @梧桐雨, 嗯,你這次仆街了
2 個月前回覆

霓詩 - SO~兩者的距離,只差一公分~~
2 個月前回覆

筆言 - 其實有點遠
2 個月前回覆

霓詩 - @筆言,呵呵,不過意思還是易懂得
2 個月前回覆

車川ひろし - 好難耶~
2 個月前回覆

檸檬綠 - 「畀」做「給予」時跟「give」用法好像啊XDD
2 個月前回覆

筆言 -



「給」本身更像英文中的give ,連語序也一樣

I give you a book.

我給你一本書



我畀一本書你   就是

I give a book you.


還是有點不一樣。
2 個月前回覆

檸檬綠 - @筆言,OWO/
2 個月前回覆

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