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#1
動詞篇【一】「給」與「畀」
筆言
No Plagiarism!IADNBt50qJh63tR643geposted on PENANA

動詞篇【一】「給」與「畀」62Please respect copyright.PENANApfpnjum9mt
62Please respect copyright.PENANA9AzMKxhBLH
copyright protection58PENANAHrojAkrm9t

在重視人鄰關係的中國文化底蘊中,我們在日常生活經常有「給予」物件的行為以示友好。所以「給」這個字已經化成不同的詞性,在我們的日常口語當中經常使用,就例如:copyright protection58PENANAmS4ZFGtLHU

「我給你一些東西。」(動詞)copyright protection58PENANAuY0yrREvVV

「告訢給你。」(介詞)copyright protection58PENANAKDm8WWsojC

「補給。」(名詞)62Please respect copyright.PENANAqTLh90nYlX
62Please respect copyright.PENANAFKd48wzuGW
copyright protection58PENANASGuWFaC9Vj

但你現在知道「給」這個字的本意並不完全是「給予」的意思。62Please respect copyright.PENANAYPwxBg5TSQ
copyright protection58PENANA3qi4YKWDgR


62Please respect copyright.PENANAAiJmATmXRH
字義62Please respect copyright.PENANAVxr8BzFb3l
62Please respect copyright.PENANA72aEzMUEGN
copyright protection58PENANAy0uV8rRBPb

考究《說文解字.糸部》:「給,相足也。」copyright protection58PENANAeIRIExThHP

所謂「相足」,即是互補不足之意。copyright protection58PENANABKfTPeDLRT

你不足夠的,我補充給你。就《管子》的一句話是這樣的:copyright protection58PENANACqU6l3xdEn

「人君不理,則畜賈游於市,乘民之不給,百倍其本矣。」copyright protection58PENANAoS5gBKOv1v

大意就說,如果政府不管理商家,隨便他們炒賣,那麼他們就會「乘機趁著人民不能互相補充(買賣)的情況(就說是戰爭天災的情況)」,商家的屯貨就會身價百倍。copyright protection58PENANAkDgzw5OaQF

而基於以上的用法,才在後代慢慢生出「給予」之意。62Please respect copyright.PENANAvg5fCF8ZD0
62Please respect copyright.PENANAGyx8H8ImkL
copyright protection58PENANA4t6Yzr17EG


62Please respect copyright.PENANAHsNS6nF12l
但是,古代也有「給予,給你東西」的情況吧,那麼他們是用什麼字來表達這個情況?copyright protection58PENANAv3zAkbk8Gm

就是遺留在粵語中的「畀」字。62Please respect copyright.PENANAOyCTNfzWed
62Please respect copyright.PENANAWVLt3sCLPX
copyright protection58PENANAD0ZUAwZoGQ

考究《說文解字.丌部》:「相付與之。」copyright protection58PENANA3Lj9KSBL0f

        《爾雅》:「畀,賜也。」copyright protection58PENANAsvj16DcqMS

  《玉篇》:「畀,相付也,與也。」copyright protection58PENANANqTMktijRZ

相信大家也看得懂,從古代開始「畀」就有著「給予」本意。其字本意解,我就不多詳細,想問的人可以自己看看《說文注字注》。我就談談「畀」和「給」的用法之別。62Please respect copyright.PENANAxxplpvJ5wL
62Please respect copyright.PENANAqlk2e8hO4w
copyright protection58PENANAaVKt5umGgm


文法62Please respect copyright.PENANA11rNvug8f5
62Please respect copyright.PENANA5NCu820R8x
copyright protection58PENANAWJRgKXUXoG

儘管兩字意同,在基於兩字的文字發展過程有異,其文法上的運用以及意思範圍上有所分別。62Please respect copyright.PENANADySXA75SWa
62Please respect copyright.PENANAoXcPLHk1PA
copyright protection58PENANAQb6JYqcgK4

文法:copyright protection58PENANAfU00o5vKMM

「給」與「畀」在單獨以動詞使用,以至以連動介詞使用時,文法不變:copyright protection58PENANA6JvYZfWUdl

「我給你。」 = 「我畀你。」copyright protection58PENANAA3wHMu8ZLT

「我講給你聽。」 = 「我講畀你聽。」62Please respect copyright.PENANA7UnKpwNqnV
62Please respect copyright.PENANAY1tRZ4Z4XV
copyright protection58PENANA41O41caxWX

但在雙賓語的語境下就會使句子語序出現不同的情況。copyright protection58PENANAj2GP1G5XBi

「我給你一本書。」copyright protection58PENANAiblPT8k175

「我畀一本書你。」62Please respect copyright.PENANAflTrbE9wGY
62Please respect copyright.PENANA6NTuxj0lKo
copyright protection58PENANAUb6Ig8VqGR

除此之外,粵文的「畀」比起白話文的「給」有更多的語義範圍:copyright protection58PENANAo0T4PVLUSm

「讓」義:「畀他入嚟」 = 「讓他進來」copyright protection58PENANAdbyz1rHltO

受身義(被):「畀人煩咗成日」 = 「被人煩了整天」62Please respect copyright.PENANAgIpJAoOztL
62Please respect copyright.PENANAuJ7obi2kOJ
copyright protection58PENANAqo0x7hG2Im

另外,還可以當連詞來使用。copyright protection58PENANAT6mNbcIX7B

「如果」義:copyright protection58PENANAjkNSTOkA9N

「畀着喺你,你會點做?」 = 「如果是你,你會怎做?」62Please respect copyright.PENANAiVxcp4vpqf
copyright protection58PENANApAbq8jHOlq

字理62Please respect copyright.PENANANGYdqyCe75
62Please respect copyright.PENANAZCP600p3ke
copyright protection58PENANAaeww2IIKFQ

而為什麼粵文的「畀」用法這樣的多?copyright protection58PENANAmZa9R4YbF8

這跟文言文的使用習性有關,文言文著重言簡意該,而每個字都沒有意思上的絕對限制,可以有十分多的意思,雖然這是令文言文難讀的原因,但也就促成語意精美的獨特語境。copyright protection58PENANAZ4IbvQudEP

同樣,粵文大多的字義、文字是直承文言系統,粵文的文字沒有白語文般的嚴謹語法和字義,也就造就出一詞多用、多詞性的情況出現,例如:copyright protection58PENANADP4am7S5Sx

仆街一詞copyright protection58PENANAVew5oo9mAO

「仆街!」語氣助詞copyright protection58PENANAuzTdLo3fCI

「你個仆街!」名詞copyright protection58PENANA5fxaqThiZ9

「仆街啦你。」動詞copyright protection58PENANAQUonZML99m

「你會唔會仆街咗啲」形容詞copyright protection58PENANAYEWRRHgVXS

「仆你個街。」動詞+名詞62Please respect copyright.PENANAMDakPzplZP
62Please respect copyright.PENANABNvz0V8Cag
copyright protection58PENANAD38bdz5vR4

粵文就是這樣的好玩,沒有規範,自由組合,說得明就好了。62Please respect copyright.PENANAI9SxgTxGXS
62Please respect copyright.PENANAVKv54kFtFE
copyright protection58PENANAFIY35YQR7Z


62Please respect copyright.PENANAigrNQsJY5T
​附錄《【畀】【俾】【比】有乜分別》:copyright protection58PENANAd5D9XuRepO

62Please respect copyright.PENANAeO37lj1T0Y
62Please respect copyright.PENANALVIg1NBGgh
畀,俾,比,三字的讀音皆為〔bei2〕/〔 pei²²〕。62Please respect copyright.PENANAkyyMmof6nk
62Please respect copyright.PENANAZC92KvmLon
【畀】:廣州音〔bei2〕62Please respect copyright.PENANAKaitrkg30w
〔1〕給,付。62Please respect copyright.PENANAkl5S8shnyE
   例:畀本書我。〔給我一本書。〕 62Please respect copyright.PENANAIxhRA1mWNL
     你話畀佢知。〔你告訴他/她。〕62Please respect copyright.PENANAjxVC0nWgqX
〔2〕介詞。被;受;讓;用。62Please respect copyright.PENANANLiTDqlVNT
   例:畀人睇見。〔被人看見。〕 62Please respect copyright.PENANAzvrRn1SJYG
     畀嗰個人煩咗成日。〔受那個人干擾了整天。〕 62Please respect copyright.PENANAuhdqUeNRve
     畀佢入嚟。〔讓他/她進來。〕 62Please respect copyright.PENANAOjZ6cCxxxl
     畀墨水筆寫。〔用鋼筆寫。〕62Please respect copyright.PENANAq7RSYeTRXR
〔3〕連詞,常與〔着〕連用,表示假設。62Please respect copyright.PENANAxs9LS30FVv
   例:畀着你係主角,你會點做?62Please respect copyright.PENANATJOTQ0voy3
     〔假設你是主角,你會怎做?〕62Please respect copyright.PENANAJZbARaPK2N
62Please respect copyright.PENANACAfLm7PmNK
【俾】:廣州音〔bei2〕62Please respect copyright.PENANARHuFAkG6Ie
〔1〕使。62Please respect copyright.PENANAasdm34wSPz
   例:俾便考查。 62Please respect copyright.PENANAFr9Vcv32RR
     唔好俾度門關埋。〔使門不能關上。〕62Please respect copyright.PENANAMIzgo9B5gk
62Please respect copyright.PENANAjrMwNPBkIq
【比】:廣州音〔bei2比〕62Please respect copyright.PENANAToS3j4zm6q
〔1〕比嘅字義較廣,一般用喺較量或者譬喻嘅意思。62Please respect copyright.PENANAeT9NayXLDe
62Please respect copyright.PENANA6WFSttI5Oq
畀,俾,比,三字基本上各有所指,不易混淆。62Please respect copyright.PENANAwHOoL7tkuA
但由於香港的報刊與雜誌,經常將「畀」的意義的字寫成「俾」字,所以才有這混亂出現。62Please respect copyright.PENANAKItUwEstp6
62Please respect copyright.PENANAHw3moxQ6CE
「俾」.意義是:「使」。62Please respect copyright.PENANAw8mlx7t0rX
   《廣韻》、《爾雅》:等均言「俾,使也」。62Please respect copyright.PENANAAcG47cIAG8
62Please respect copyright.PENANAGnEJK3gA9T
「畀」.意思是:「給」、「付與」。62Please respect copyright.PENANAeG2A2zHvA9
   《爾雅》:「畀,賜也。」62Please respect copyright.PENANAtbmagtmZ32
   《玉篇》:「畀,相付也,與也。」62Please respect copyright.PENANA7KqMuaPLKZ
   《說文》:「畀,相付與之。」62Please respect copyright.PENANAEYGHzIhheR
62Please respect copyright.PENANArH3NRjheil
所以嚴格來說,我們日常用的「bei2」字,正寫應為「畀」。62Please respect copyright.PENANAhq5HdzR3kC
62Please respect copyright.PENANA3ZAJGasYrH
但為何我們會以「俾」代「畀」呢?62Please respect copyright.PENANAPSoTGgdXuv
「俾」讀音為〔bei2〕,與粵語中的〔比、彼〕同音。62Please respect copyright.PENANAiMWot9Ylcj
「畀」讀音同為〔bei2〕,又讀音為〔bei3〕,與粵語中的〔庇、秘、臂」等同音。62Please respect copyright.PENANAXgjy0ZIsXa
62Please respect copyright.PENANAaN2yHIOUGj
由此可見,我們常用的「bei2」字,與「俾」同音,但卻與「畀」同義。由於「俾」、「畀」音近,而「俾」在現今書面語仍保留著,故常以「俾」代「畀」。 62Please respect copyright.PENANAqZ5mnywmUJ
62Please respect copyright.PENANAFRZYpZY8sW
文:井底蛙.2007年12月13日62Please respect copyright.PENANAiCKlar3ZlK
〔香港語文.廣東話資料館〕copyright protection58PENANA73Rgf5PkAH

54.80.115.140

ns54.80.115.140da2
留言 ( 12 )

Pig Done - 哇嗚…長知識了!!
5 個月前回覆

梧桐雨 - 看完之後...我只記得仆街....
(學語言都從罵人的話開始...
5 個月前回覆

筆言 - 考試 仆街了嗎?
5 個月前回覆

梧桐雨 - @筆言,沒飯吃了
5 個月前回覆

筆言 - @梧桐雨, 嗯,你這次仆街了
5 個月前回覆

霓詩 - SO~兩者的距離,只差一公分~~
5 個月前回覆

筆言 - 其實有點遠
5 個月前回覆

霓詩 - @筆言,呵呵,不過意思還是易懂得
5 個月前回覆

車川ひろし - 好難耶~
5 個月前回覆

檸檬綠 - 「畀」做「給予」時跟「give」用法好像啊XDD
5 個月前回覆

筆言 -



「給」本身更像英文中的give ,連語序也一樣

I give you a book.

我給你一本書



我畀一本書你   就是

I give a book you.


還是有點不一樣。
5 個月前回覆

檸檬綠 - @筆言,OWO/
5 個月前回覆

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